Net Operating Income (NOI)


Net Operating Income (NOI) is a calculation used to analyze the profitability of income-generating real estate investments. It is a before-tax figure that helps real estate professionals determine the value and potential income of a property. 

By subtracting the operating expenses from the property’s revenue, NOI provides an accurate measure of its financial performance.

Key Takeaways:

  • NOI is a valuation method used by real estate professionals to determine the precise value of their income-producing properties.
  • It helps investors calculate the capitalization rate and compare different properties for potential purchase or sale.
  • NOI is used in various ratios, such as debt coverage ratio (DCR), net income multiplier, cash return on investment, and total return on investment.

How it Works:

To calculate NOI, the operating expenses are subtracted from the revenue generated by a real estate property. The revenue includes not only rental income but also additional sources such as parking fees, vending machines, and laundry facilities. 

Operating expenses encompass costs like insurance premiums, property taxes, repairs, utilities, and janitorial fees. Capital expenditures, such as major building renovations, are not included in the calculation.

Key Components:

  • Total Revenue: This includes all income generated by the property, such as rent and revenue from other amenities.
  • Operating Expenses: These are the costs associated with operating and maintaining the property, including taxes, insurance, repairs, utilities, and property management fees.


  • Valuation Tool: NOI provides a precise measure of a property’s financial performance and helps calculate its capitalization rate.
  • Basis for Comparison: Investors can utilize NOI to compare the potential returns of different properties and make informed purchase or sale decisions.
  • Lending Decisions: Lenders rely on NOI to assess a property’s income potential and determine the loan size they are willing to offer.
  • Profitability Analysis: By analyzing NOI, property owners can assess the profitability of their investments and make necessary adjustments to increase their income.


Net Operating Income (NOI) is an essential metric in real estate investing, providing a comprehensive evaluation of a property’s financial performance. 

By accurately calculating revenue and expenses, investors can assess the profitability of their investments, compare properties, and make informed decisions. 

It is crucial to consider NOI when estimating the value and feasibility of income-generating real estate properties, as it serves as a fundamental tool for investors and lenders alike.

Note that NOI does not account for factors like income taxes or mortgage amortization and should be used in conjunction with other financial metrics for a comprehensive analysis of a property’s potential returns.

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